President Clinton announced his proposed Forest Plan for a Sustainable Economy and a Sustainable Environment on July 1, consisting of strategies for forest management, economic development, and agency coordination. The forest management and late-successional forest ecosystem in the Pacific northwest The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) has guided the management of 17 federal forests in the US Pacific Northwest for the past 25 years. The existing management plans for these national forests - which were amended by the NWFP - are now being evaluated for revision under the US Forest Service's 2012 planning rule Northwest Forest Plan ROD: December 1994 From FEMAT to the Northwest Forest Plan. Project Area - Scope •24.3 million ac in total In WA, OR, CA 20.7 million ac are forested 14.3 million ac of trees > 9 in 19 National Forests (19,400,000 ac) 7 BML Districts (2,700,000 ac The Northwest Forest Plan: Origins, Components, Implementation Experience, and Suggestions for Change JACK WARD THOMAS,∗ JERRY F. FRANKLIN,† JOHN GORDON,‡ AND K. NORMAN JOHNSON§ ∗Department of Forest Management, College of Forestry and Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, U.S.A, email firstname.lastname@example.org
The Northwest Forest Plan identifies three different types of monitoring requirements: Implementation monitoring, Effectiveness monitoring, and Validation monitoring. Implementation monitoring occurs on an annual basis and assesses the degree to which the Northwest Forest Plan standards and guidelines are being followed in projec In 1994, the comprehensive Northwest Forest Plan ('the Plan') was initiated to end the impasse over management of federal forest land in the Pacific Northwest within the range of the northern spotted owl. The Plan Record of Decision and Standards and Guidelines used an innovative approach based on ecosystem and watershed management Record of Decision (1.02MB PDF) News Release- (pdf) Key Points (pdf) Questions and Answers (pdf) Northwest Forest Plan Background Information (pdf) J anuary 23, 2004 Survey and Manage FSEIS, Vol. 1 (11.96MB PDF) Survey and Manage FSEIS, Vol. 2 (13.77MB PDF) Federal Register Notice - January 23, 2004 News Release (pdf) Key Points (pdf) Questions. Northwest Forest Plan—The First 10 Years (1994-2003): Socioeconomic Monitoring of the Klamath National Forest and Three Local Communities Northwest Forest PlaN The FirsT Ten Years (1994-2003) Pacific Northwest D Research Station E P AR TMEN OF GRIC U L T U R E Forest Service United States Department o
Forest Related Species Within the Range of the Northern Spotted Owl Attachment A to the Record of Decision for Amendments to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents Within the Range of the Northern Spotted Owl Outline All sections of this document, considered together, are the complete compilation of standards and. In 1994, the Bureau of Land Management and Forest Service adopted standards and guidelines for the management of habitat for late-successional and old-growth forest related species within the range of the northern spotted owl, commonly known as the Northwest Forest Plan. The key elements of the Northwest Forest Plan are the system o Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 133 p; DOI: 10.2737/PNW-GTR-647; Abstract. We aggregated road, vegetation, and inchannel data to assess the condition of sixth-field watersheds and describe the distribution of the condition of watersheds in the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) area The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) ended clearcutting of old-growth forest on federal land across western Washington, Oregon, and California in the early 1990s. We provide a test of how this dramatic change affected bird populations—a commonly used biodiversity indicator. Although the NWFP greatly reduced losses of older forests to logging, losses to wildfire have increased, and declines in.
Northwest Forest Plan: Authoritative Documents. Last content revision 12/24/02. The Northwest Forest Plan is a complex set of policies, decisions, standards and guidelines. No single source contains the plan in its entirety, but the following list includes the most important documents The Pacific Northwest and Pacific Southwest regions of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service collaboratively developed and released a Bioregional Assessment which provides a snapshot in time of the current ecological, social and economic conditions on national forest system lands within the Northwest Forest Plan amendment area as well as two adjacent units . REEVES,∗§ JACK E. WILLIAMS,† KELLY M. BURNETT,∗ AND KIRSTEN GALLO‡ ∗U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, U.S.A. †Trout Unlimited, 329 Crater Lake Avenue, Medford, OR 97504, U.S.A Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring Bentivoglio et al. April 2002 Northwest Forest Plan Marbled Murrelet Effectiveness Monitoring 2000 Annual Report Naomi Bentivoglio1 (Team Leader), Jim Baldwin2, Patrick G.R. Jodice1, Diane Evans Mack3, Tim Max4, Sherri Miller5, S. Kim Nelson6, Ken Ostrom1, C. John Ralph5, Martin Raphael3, Craig Strong7, Chris Thompson8, Randall Wilk Northwest Forest Plan:Evaluating Potential Consequences of Proposed Riparian Reserve Reductions for Clean Water, Streams and Fish Coast Range Association August, 2013 Full report available at coastrange.org Implications of new science since the 1993 Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) Christopher A. Frissell, Ph.D
The Northwest Forest Plan applies to this area . 2 — Almanac - PaCifiC norThwesT region coasTal range The Coastal Range consists of relatively low, steep mountains running parallel to the coastline . The mountains receive high rainfall, which supports moist forests of western hemlock . Alon Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Program Interagency Monitoring Program - Northwest Forest Plan 2004 Annual Technical Report Chris Moyer, Steve Lanigan, Kirsten Gallo, Jacob Chambers, and Kristina Fausti Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Team USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Regional Office Bureau of Land Management Oregon State Office December 2004 A copy of. The Northwest Forest Plan assumes that about 80 percent of the reserves must be restored to late-successional condition, but currently only about 40% of the acres in LSRs are made up of forests with medium and large conifers, and only 30% of Riparian Reserves acres are made up o The Northwest Forest Plan outlines management policies for several land designations that it specified. ( Click here for a PDF map (3MB) of the Plan's allocations in Oregon ): Late Successional Reserves (LSR): The NWFP set aside 30%, or 7.4 million acres, of federal land as LSR. The intent is to protect current old-growth forests and wildlife. The original 1994 Northwest Forest Plan and a 2001 supplement to the Plan were both signed at the secretarial level. Q) When will the decision become effective? The decision will be effective 30 days from the signing of the Record of Decision and is not subject to protest or administrative appeal. Title: surveymangeQandA
History. The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) is a series of federal policies and guidelines governing land use on federal lands in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.It covers 10 million hectares within Western Oregon and Washington as well as a small part of Northern California. The NWFP was adopted in 1994 by the Clinton administration as the outcome of a series of studies and. Overview: The purpose of the revised Forest Plans is to provide an updated framework to guide the management of approximately 5.5 million acres of National Forest System lands in eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The revised Forest Plans replace the existing 1990 Plans, addressing changes in local economic, social, and environmental. The Northwest Forest Plan: Still the Best Science of the Day | 3 Why the Northwest Forest Plan Is Needed The NWFP ushered in ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation on nearly 25 mil-lion acres of federal lands within the range of the federally threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). At the time, Presiden *Researcher Note: The Clinton Forest Summit was a step on the path of the Northwest Forest Plan, aka \(NWFP\), or Clinton Forest plan \(CFP\) and associated studies and reports with their formal and informal names and abbreviations e.g. Forest Ecosystem \ The Northwest Forest Plan was developed in 1 year at a cost of about $3.5 million. This was a timely and cost-effective effort compared with past national forest planning efforts that took from 3 to 10 years to complete and, in the Pacific Northwest, cost between $5 million and $8 million even thoug
The Northwest Forest Plan, also known as the President's Forest Plan or Option 9, establishes a comprehensive federal policy for managing federal forests in Washington, Oregon, and northern California primarily west of the Cascades. The plan came into being Impacts of the Northwest Forest Plan on forest composition and bird populations Benjamin T. Phalana,b,1, Joseph M. Northrupa,c, Zhiqiang Yangd, Robert L. Deale, Josée S. Rousseaua, Thomas A. Spiesf, and Matthew G. Bettsa,1 aForest Biodiversity Research Network, Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331; bInstituto de Biologia We make three suggestions that will allow the plan to achieve its goals: (1) recognize that the Northwest Forest Plan has evolved into an integrative conservation strategy, (2) conserve old-growth trees and forests wherever they occur, and (3) manage federal forests as dynamic ecosystems How to create an electronic signature for the Northwest Forest Plan The First 10 Years 1994 2003 Nwenvironmentalforum online. Are you looking for a one-size-fits-all solution to e-sign northwest forest plan the first 10 years 1994 2003 nwenvironmentalforum? signNow combines ease of use, affordability and security in one online tool, all without forcing extra software on you PDF | The Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Program focuses on assessing the degree to which federal land management under the aquatic... | Find, read and cite all the research you.
Fire History Database and Map Layer: Northwest Forest Plan Area August 29, 2005 Danielle Robbins1 Dept. of Forest Science Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon Frederick J. Swanson Pacific Northwest Research Station USDA Forest Service Corvallis, Oregon Tree-rings and the charcoal record from lake cores have been used to reconstruct fir Known as the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) (U.S. Forest Service and USDI Bureau of Land Management 1994), this strategy was intended to resolve a long- running legal dispute over the fate of the Northern Spotted Owl ( Strix occidentalis caurina ) and other species dependent o The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) initiated one of the most sweeping changes to forest management in the world, affecting 10 million hectares of federal land. The NWFP is a science-based plan. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 54 p. Abstract This is the third in a series of periodic monitoring reports on northern spotted owl ( Strix occidentalis caurina ) habitat status and trends on federally administered lands since implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) in.
The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) covers more than 24 million acres of federal forests in Washington, Oregon and California. Finalized in 1994, it is a science-based forest management plan for the region. It is designed to ensure the persistence of the northern spotted owl (listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Specie This report presents results from monitoring spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) populations and habitat during the first 10 years of implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan). Estimated population decline ranged from 0 to 10 percent across study areas (weighted average of 3.4 percent) annually Northwest Forest Plan. The plan was the landmark compromise between environmentalists and the timber industry and covered a region stretching east from the Pacific Ocean past the crest of the Cascades and south from the Canadian border to the California redwoods. On October 23, 2001 the Yale Forest Forum and the student-led Wester in the Northwest Forest Plan, including a regional net- work of late-successional reserves intended to sustain old-growth forest ecosystems and associated species. METHODS Historical fire regimes An understanding of forest history, including eco- system conditions and disturbance processes, is an im
Abstract: The 1994 Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) shifted federal lands management from a focus on timber production to ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. The plan established a network of conservation reserves and an ecosystem management strategy on ~10 million hectares from northern California to Washington State, USA Impact of Northwest Forest Plan: 1990s In the 1990s, when NWFP was implemented, it appears to have Increased amenity-related migration and growth in real property value in communities adjacent to NWFP-protected forests. Reduced population and property values in towns with NWFP-induced mill closures Reduced median household income i Forest policy: ISBN 13: Description: The socioeconomic monitoring report addresses two evaluation questions posed in the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) Record of Decision and assesses progress in meeting five Plan socioeconomic goals. Volume I of the report contains key findings The Relative Impact of Harvest and Fire upon Landscape-Level Dynamics of Older Forests: Lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan Sean P. Healey,1* Warren B. Cohen,2 Thomas A. Spies,2 Melinda Moeur,3 Dirk Pﬂugmacher,4 M. German Whitley,2 and Michael Lefsky5 1U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, 507 25th St., Ogden, Utah 84401, USA; 2U.S
Interagency Regional Monitoring Northwest Forest Plan Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Program. 2004. Chris Moyer. Kirsten Gallo. Chris Moyer Download with Facebook. or. Create a free account to download. PDF. PDF. Download PDF Package. PDF. Premium PDF Package. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this. The 1994 Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) ushered in ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation on nearly 10 million ha of federal lands within the range of the federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) from northern California to Washington State, mostly along the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains, USA. The 1994 Record of Decision (ROD) for Amendments to Forest Service (FS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Planning Documents within the Range of the Northwest Spotted Owl (PDF) (called the Northwest Forest Plan) includes Standards and Guidelines for Management of Habitat for Late Successional and Old Growth Forest Related Species within the. Forest Contacts for Northwest Forest Plan Provincial Advisory Committees (PACs): Eastern Washington Provincial Advisory Committee: Robin DeMario, Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest Headquarters Office, 215 Melody Lane, Wenatchee, WA 98801. Telephone Number: (509) 664-9292
Twenty years have elapsed since a major science synthesis and planning effort led to adoption of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan (NFP) in 1994. Their purpose was to protect and restore riparian and aquati The Clinton Forest Plan. This article orignially appeared in Z Magazine, April 1994. After nearly a year of back room deals, political arm-twisting and viciously polarized debate, the Clinton administration has released the final details of its long-awaited plan for the ancient forests of the Pacific Northwest The Northwest Forest Plan, created in 1994, established a system of late-successional reserves (LSR) across the range of the spotted owl to provide suitable nesting habitat over the long term. The federal forest lands outside these reserves are managed to allow dispersal between the LSRs through riparian reserves and other land allocations
Procurement contracting is a particular focus of the socioeconomic monitoring because one expectation of the Northwest Forest Plan was that the Forest Service and BLM would create high-skill, high-wage private sector jobs in public land restoration through contracting to partially offset job losses in timber production, harvesting, and processing successional forest (LSRA p. 5-15). The guidelines from the Northwest Forest Plan were general and it was expected that specific guidelines would be established for each province, and possibly for different forest types within provinces. The Gifford Pinchot LSRA refined salvage guidelines 1-4 from the Northwest Forest Plan (LSRA, 5-43) In order to read full Review Of The Report Alternatives For Management Of Late Successional Forests Of The Pacific Northwest By The Scientific Panel On Late Successional Forest Ecosystems ebook, you need to create a FREE account and get unlimited access, enjoy the book anytime and anywhere. We cannot guarantee that every books is in the library increasing amenity migration to forest communities, with associated economic benefits. This paper uses the case of the Northwest Forest Plan—a forest management policy implemented on 24 million acres of federal land in the US Pacific Northwest that caused roughly 11.6 million acres to be reallocated from commodi US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 240 W. Prospect, Fort Collins, Colorado 80526-2098, USA, on assignment to Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, Oregon, USA , US. Raymond L. Czaplewski. US Forest Service Region 6, P.O. Box 3890 Portland, Oregon 97208, USA , US. Tim Toll
Northwest Forest Plan. The Survey and Manage Standard and Guideline was revised in 2001 (USDA Forest Service and USDI Bureau of Land Management 2001). This amendment to the Northwest Forest Plan directs that new information about Survey and Manage species be evaluated on an annual basis by teams of taxa specialists and managers Timber harvests on lands now managed under the Northwest Forest Plan, 1988-2009. Data compiled from U.S. Forest Service, Production, Prices, Employment, and Trade in Northwest Forest Industries reports from 1988 through 2009, and from information provided to the author by the Bureau of Land Management.The NWFP applied to BLM districts in northern California, including the Redding Resource. The 1994 Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was developed to resolve debates over old-growth forests, endangered species, and timber production on federal forests in the range of the northern spotted owl. This three-volume science synthesis, which consists of 12 chapters that address various ecological and social concerns, is intended to inform.
Identifying and Managing Mountain Beaver Damage to Forest Resources - OSU Extension Fact Sheet EM9063. Living With Wildlife: Species Fact Sheets - WDFW. Recognizing Sapsucker Damage to Your Trees (PDF) - WSU Extension Fact Sheet FS057E. Timber Damage by Black Bears (PDF) - USDA Forest Service publication. Topic List The 1994 Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) shifted federal lands management from a focus on timber production to ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. The plan established a network of conservation reserves and an ecosystem management strategy on ~10 million hectares from northern California to Washington State, USA, within the range of the federally threatene Abstract. This archived document is maintained by the Oregon State Library as part of the Oregon Documents Depository Program. It is for informational purposes and may not be suitable for legal purposes.Title from PDF caption (viewed on July 11, 2014)Evaluation of Northwest Forest Plan and the Northwest Economic Adjustment InitiativeThis study was made possible by funding from the USDA Forest. Listing: In 1992, the Washington, Oregon, and California population of the marbled murrelet was federally listed as threatened. In October 2008, USFWS initiated a 12-month status review of the species as a result of a petition to delist. The 12-month finding concluded, in January 2010, that the.
Northwest Forest Plan. 1,223 likes. A web-based resource to defend and improve the Northwest Forest Plan and its Aquatic Conservation Strategy Abstract: The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) was listed as threatened in 1992, primarily because of loss of its old‐forest nesting habitat.Monitoring conducted over the first 10 years following implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan shows at‐sea murrelet populations appear to be stationary, but recruitment is very low and demographic models project a 4-6% annual rate of. Rate this post From 18 High Hill attractions, Yelp helps you discover popular restaurants, Buytaert et al., 2006). The metro is touching the mountains, and there is some nice hilly area around the southern part of the city. Shooting Lodge. Things to see and do, stories, advice, and information from the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority Its summit is a symmetrical rounded grassy dome. Northwest Forest Pl an Science Synthesis 107 SE Washington. Suite 253 Portl and, OR 97214 Re: Comments on the Northwest Forest Plan Science Synthesis The Association of O&C Counties (AOCC) represents 17 Counties that lie within the area managed under the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP). In some of the Counties the majority of th Pacific Northwest family forest lands. Many people have contributed to the original workbook (PW490, 1995) and In managing a forest, plan for the long term since whatever you do (or do not do) will have long-term impacts. A Forest Stewardship Plan will guide and help you define your personal objectives, manage your land.
The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) has guided the management of 17 federal forests in the US Pacific Northwest for the past 25 years. The existing management plans for these national forests. . a 5 year status review and a reexamination of critical habitat for the northern spotted owl and the marbled murrelet are essential to achieving the 1.1 bbf timber sale goal.2 • BLM O&C Lands - Amend the to make timber productio Volume V reports on trends in public values regarding forest management in the Pacific Northwest over the past decade, community views of how well the forest values and environmental qualities associated with late-successional, old-growth, and aquatic ecosystems have been protected under the Plan (a fifth Plan goal), and issues and concerns. Northwest Regional Planning Commission Regional Plan November 30, 2014 1 Introduction The Importance of Forests to the Northwest Region Forests, in one form or another can be seen throughout the Northwest Region, whether as a town forest, timber stand, undeveloped mountain side, buffer along a stream, or a private sugarbush
Download Free PDF. Download Free PDF. Establishing a Regional Monitoring Strategy: The Pacific Northwest Forest Plan. Environmental Management, 1999. Raymond Czaplewski. Paul Ringold. Jim Alegria. Kelly Burnett. Burnett Kelly. Raymond Czaplewski OWTFR Forest Plan Management Area Allocations Label Willamette Forest Plan Northwest Forest Plan Acres 11C Scenic-Partial Retention Middleground Matrix land 1487 11D Late Successional Reserve - 100 acre Late Successional Reserve 56 11D Scenic-Partial Retention Foreground Matrix land 849 11E Scenic-Retention Middleground Matrix land 115
Northwest Forest Plan, and describes the extent to which scientific and technical information influences the revision of policy beliefs. The study tested assumptions of the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) regarding the propensity for belief change, or policy-oriented learning, t Northwest Forest Plan and Other Land Allocations 0 0.5 1 Miles This product is produced from information prepared by the USDA, Forest Service, or from other suppliers. The Forest Service cannot assure the reliability or suitability of this information for a particular purpose. The data an This case study examines the socioeconomic changes that took place between 1990 and 2000 in and around lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Coos Bay District in southwestern Oregon for purposes of assessing the effects of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) on rural economies and communities in the Coos Bay region Importance of Northwest Forest Plan . 1) The Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) is a multispecies conservation plan addressing the habitat requirements of many species associated with old-growth and late-seral forests. Many of these species are of conservation concern and potential candidates for ESA listing
all timber sales in spotted owl habitat until forest managers could produce a plan to ensure preservation of the entire ecosystem. In 1993, the federal government got involved in the ensuing stalemate, and in 1994 it passed the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP).  The NWFP was touted as a compromise between environmental and economic considerations This report examines socioeconomic changes that took place between 1990 and 2003 on and around lands managed by the Mount Hood National Forest in Oregon to assess the effects of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) on rural economies and communities there
4.3 FOREST MANAGEMENT IN RIPARIAN AREAS - UNH Extension Management of Pacific Northwest riparian forests is necessary because many of these forests have been dramatically changed from their original makeup. The primary interest in riparian forest and aquatic ecosystems under the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) is the need to restore stream habita SCIENCE FORUM | JUNE 26, 2018. The U.S. Forest Service's Pacific Northwest and Pacific Southwest Research Stations developed the Synthesis of Science to Inform Land Management within the Northwest Forest Plan area, which is now available electronically. Written by scientists from the Forest Service, other federal agencies, universities, and. THE NORTHWEST FOREST PLAN AS A GLOBAL AND REGIONAL MODEL FOR CONSERVATION AND ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT June 14, 2012 As scientists with backgrounds in natural resource management and ecology, we wish to express our full support for the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP), a global model in ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation1. The. To file a complaint of discrimination, 97470. He is the module leader for northern spotted owl effectiveness monitoring under the Northwest Forest Plan. This report presents results from monitoring spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) populations and habitat during the first 10 years of implementation of the Northwest Forest Plan (the Plan) Northwest Forest Plan Aquatic Conservation Strategy (ACS) and Sierra Nevada Forest Plan Amendment Aquatic Management Strategy (AMS) • Directives to maintain and restore water quality with all actions. Southern California Forest Plans? Forest Land and Resource Management Plans (LRMPs) • Set Standards & Guidelines for Range.
Northwest Forest Plan allows for regeneration harvesting on Matrix lands, such as the 1,861 acres identified for potential regeneration harvest or commercial thinning in the project area. Please pay careful attention to Matrix management guidance in the Northwest Forest Plan Land uses on federal lands are addressed in the Northwest Forest Plan, associated Aquatic Conservation Strategy, and various Water Quality Restoration Plans developed by the Umpqua and Siuslaw National Forests and the Roseburg, Medford, and Coos Bay offices of the Bureau of Land Management The Northwest Forest Plan predicted it would not be for another 30 years that sufficient habitat would grow back into large blocks to see owl populations begin to recover. The invasion of Barred Owl into Spotted Owl's range requires a higher level of protection tha In accordance with Federal civil rights law and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) civil rights regulations and policies, the USDA, its Agencies, offices, and employees, and i
Before the middle of the 20th century, most forest managers believed that fires should be suppressed at all times. By 1935, the U.S. Forest Service's fire management policy stipulated that all wildfires were to be suppressed by 10 am the morning after they were first spotted. Fire fighting crews were established throughout public lands, and generally staffed by young men during fire seasons designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Northwest Forest Plan (Madsen et al. 1999), which is a large-scale ecosystem management plan for federal lands in the Pacific Northwest. As part of the Effectiveness Monitoring Program of the Northwest Forest Plan, Washington Departmen Climate change is expected to alter the composition, structure, and function of forested ecosystems in the United States (Vose et al. 2012). Increases in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide [CO2]) and temperature, as well as altered precipitation and disturbance regimes (e.g., fire, insects, pathogens, and windstorms), are expected to have profound effects on.