8th Grade Physical Science Textbook Georgia

Georgia Department of Education July 11, 2017 GSE 8th Grade Physical Science Curriculum Map These are bundles of core ideas from the Georgia Standards of Excellence related to an anchoring phenomenon. This document is part of a framework that includes lessons and resources 8th Grade Science 2012-2013 On Level and Advanced Textbook - Georgia Holt Science & Technology Physical Science Textbook Web site - my.hrw.com Username - anyone25 Password - p5p8k Weekly Assignments Vocabulary Quiz on Friday Science Article due Frida

Content Resources. 8th Grade Science Georgia Standards of Excellence. GSE Clarifications Distance Learning These plans were specifically designed for use during these uncertain times as support for school districts, administrators, teachers, and parents who are working tirelessly to provide students with quality content in a remote format Georgia Science Grade 8 CRCT Practice. Unit 1: The Nature of Science Chapter 1: The Nature of Science Chapter 2: Measurement Unit 2: Matter Chapter 3: Atoms, Elements, and the Periodic Table Chapter 4: States of Matter Chapter 5: Matter—Properties and Changes Unit 3: Chemistry Chapter 6: Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonds Chapter 7: Chemical. MS Science 8th Grade. MS Social Studies 6th Grade. MS Social Studies 7th Grade. MS Social Studies 8th Grade

Amanda Calhoun

  1. A textbook will be available for classroom and maybe checked out if needed. Students will have access to an abundance of classroom and online resources, including: An Online Text Resource, the 8th Grade Science Website, Google Classroom, Edmodo, Quizlet, BrainPOP, and NewsELA
  2. e if a chemical or physical change has taken place or the pattern of a wave's wavelength in relation to the energy in the wave
  3. Subject Grade Website Username\Password\Access Code; All Holt Math Course Textbooks : 6, 7, 8: Yes: Username: hbmsparents | Password: excellence : Earth Science
  4. 8th-grade science covers topics such as matter and energy, forces, energy, sound, and light through studies of sports, food, and cooking, and science, and toys. As you can tell from the topic lists this is a secular curriculum that is used in Georgia public schools for virtual learning
  5. Georgia Milestones End of Course Study/Resource Guides. The Study/Resource Guides are intended to serve as a resource for parents and students. They contain practice questions and learning activities for each content area. The standards identified in the Study/Resource Guides address a sampling of the state-mandated content standards

PHYSICAL SCIENCE. Eighth grade physical science introduces students to matter and energy - the fundamental concepts of chemistry and physics. We use the HMH Georgia Science textbook, supplemented with a variety of other resources Science Overview. In 2017-2018, the state of Georgia began implementing the Georgia Standards of Excellence in Science in Grades K-8, Biology, Physical Science, Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, and Environmental Science. These standards will focus on 3-Dimensional learning which incorporates science content, crosscutting concepts, and science. Georgia Programs Glencoe Biology: Georgia Edition © 2008; Georgia Science Grade 6 © 2008; Georgia Science Grade 7 © 2008; Georgia Science Grade 8 © 200 8th Grade Science Matter Unit Information Milestones Domain/Weight: Matter 30% Purpose/Goal(s): Within the Structure of Matter domain, students are expected to identify and demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Matter, use the Periodic Table of Elements, and distinguish between physical and chemical properties. Students are expected t Course Syllabus. 8th Grade Physical Science - STEM. Peachtree Charter Middle School. Brad_Daniell@fc.dekalb.k12.ga.us. Room 828: 678-676-7702. Course Description: During the school year, students will study the nature of matter and how matter can change. Students will discover the properties of the various elements on the periodic table and how.

8th Grade Science - Hom

Using our fully online 8th Grade Physical Science Textbook course offers convenience, fun video lessons, outstanding instructors, and relief from back pain! Using the Course. Using the course is. 8th Grade Science Achievement Level Descriptors [ALD] This is a secure Staff Intranet content page and cannot be viewed by the public. Please contact your Technology Director to gain access to the Staff Intranet area in order to view this page

Category: 7th Life Science - BETSY SANFORD'S WEBSITE

Health (6-12) Teen Health and Glencoe Health are application-based programs that teach the 10 critical health skills that align with the National Health Standards. While emphasizing social and emotional skills, these programs explore up-to-date information and statistics on timely, relevant topics to help students become health-literate individuals MS LA 6th Grade MS LA 7th Grade MS LA 8th Grade MS Math 6th Grade MS Math 7th Grade MS Math 8th Grade MS Science 6th Grade MS Science 7th Grade Science students participate in several academic competitions throughout the school year. The primary competition is the DeKalb Regional Science and Engineering Fair. The science fair is held annually in the month of February. The students who excel in this competition then compete at the Georgia State Science and Engineering Fair

Grade 8 - Science Georgia Standards of Excellence (GSE

  1. Mastery of the eighth grade math standards are crucial for the successful learning of the standards taught in the high school math courses. SCIENCE: In Physical Science, eighth graders engage in a more in-depth study of the physics and chemistry of nature
  2. istered starting 2014-15 academic year
  3. 10-24. $27.95. 25+. $17.29. The Georgia 5 th Grade GSE Science EOG workbook enables students to master the Georgia Standards of Excellence in preparation for the Georgia Milestones Assessment. This workbook is available in print and e-book formats. Bulk deal. Quantity. Fixed price
  4. Find 9780078778469 Introduction to Physical Science -Georgia Edition grade 8 by Glencoe at over 30 bookstores. Buy, rent or sell
  5. PHYSICAL SCIENCE Georgia End-Of-Course Tests Study Guide. Georgia Department of Education Science textbook(s) A teacher or other adult Highlighter * * * * Comfortable (but not too comfortable) of 80 questions on the Physical Science EOCT. Impact on Course Grade
  6. Input GA and the last entry - Science Explorer: Life, Earth and Physical Sciences. On the next screen, choose the blue physical science book. Vocabulary, crossword puzzles, and self-assessments may be found for each chapter. Curriculum Daily Plan Georgia Standards of Excellence Grading Scale
  7. Spectrum 8th Grade Science Workbook—Grade 8 State Standards, Physical, Life, Earth and Space Science, Research Activities With Answer Key for Homeschool or Classroom (176 pgs) Spectrum 4.6 out of 5 stars 1,13

8th Grade Science Electricity & Magnetism Unit Information Milestones Domain/Weight: Force & Motion 30% Purpose/Goal(s): Within the Force and Motion domain, forces acting in nature such as electricity, and magnetism are explored. Students investigate and explain the relationship between electric currents and magnets and demonstrate the advantage Textbook for Holt Science and Technology Physical Science 8th gradeReleased in 2005. Skip to main content A line drawing of the Internet Archive headquarters building façade. Textbook for Holt Science and Technology Physical Science 8th grade. Released in 2005. Addeddate 2019-09-24 00:53:29 Identifier. Mrs. Bryant 8th Grade Physical Science Georgia Physical Science By: Katherine Bryant Education Views: 3033 Useful: 1 Options; Open 8th Grade Science Fair Research for Science Fair 8th Grade Science Online Textbook topics in 8th grade science By: Debbie Collins, LMS Education Views: 2108 Useful: 0 Options; Open Physical Science Binder (8th. 8th Grade Science Energy Unit Information By the end of Grade 8, students should be able to identify the kinds of energy involved in common scenarios, explain energy transformations in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy, trace different forms of energy through a given system, Textbook Pages: 374-376, 38

Welcome to 8th Grade Physical Science! I am very excited about the coming year and look forward to getting to know you.It's my goal to help you find success in science this year and to lay the groundwork for your future success in high school AP science classes on studying concepts related to earth science, life science and physical science. The purpose of 8th Grade Students will conduct numerous labs which will bolster science literacy and complement the textbook assignments, classroom activities, and projects. Overall class behavior determines the number of lab

8th grade Physical Science. substance. element. compound. heterogeneous mixture. A class of matter made up of elements and compounds. A pure substance made of only one kind of atom. A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements. A mixture in which different materials can be distinguished ea ACT® ASVAB® (Math, Verbal, Science) GED ®® PSAT SAT SCIENCE 6th Grade Earth Science (40.06100) 7th Grade Life Science (26.01100) 8th Grade Physical Science (40.01700) Biology (26.01200) H Chemistry (40.05100) H Physics (40.08100) H Physical Science (40.01100) H Environmental Science (26.06110) Earth Systems (40.06400) H SOCIAL STUDIE

Georgia Science Grade 8 - McGraw Hil

Georgia Science 3rd Grade Flipbooks BUNDLE (Interactive

Science Readers: Georgia Edition: Grade 8 Kit is a dynamic collection of digital and print resources that integrates scientific content with literacy skills, allowing eighth grade students to explore scientific topics in meaningful ways Flexbook textbooks are available for kindergarten through 5th grade science. Middle school and high school Flexbooks offered are Earth Science, Life Science, Physical Science, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and Astronomy. CPO Science (6th to 8th) Focus on Earth Science and Focus on Life Science textbooks are available for download Science Notebook, Grade 6. Science Notebook, Grade 7. Science Notebook, Grade 8. Glencoe Florida Science, Grade 11. Science in Review Mastering the FCAT, Grade 11. Chemistry Matter Change. Science Notebook. Glencoe Life Science. Reading Essentials, An Interactive Student Workbook Course Overview. K 12 's Middle School Physical Science course presents the fundamentals of physics and chemistry. Students explore the amazing universe we live in, including motion, energy, the nature of matter and atoms, how chemicals mix and react, and the forces that hold the universe together

High School Chemistry. High School Physics. Environmental Science. Georgia Standards of Excellence (GSE) for Science. STEM GA (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Organizations and Affiliations. Georgia Department of Education. 2021 Science & Engineering Fair Awards Last Updated: 6/10/2021 12:43 PM Dr. Erin Jacobs Teacher on Special Assignment (Science) Cherokee County Schools uses the Science Georgia Standards of Excellence (GSE to provide foundational knowledge and skills in science through hands-on, student-centered, and inquiry-based instruction Welcome to our class page! Harris County-Carver Middle School. 8 th Grade Physical Science Syllabus. Teacher: Mrs. Angela Hightower. Email: hightower-a@harris.k12.ga.us Textbook: Issues & Physical Science (SEPUP) and Georgia Physical Science (Glencoe). Infinite Campus: All parents and students with internet access are encouraged to become registered users of Infinite Campus so that you may. Essential Vocabulary Words for 6th grade Earth Science; Essential Vocabulary Words for 7th grade Life Science; Essential Vocabulary Words for 8th grade Physical Science; Pacing Guides; Science Staff Informatio

Shared MS Science 8th - Georgia Virtual Learnin

ExploreLearning ® is a Charlottesville, VA based company that develops online solutions to improve student learning in math and science.. STEM Cases, Handbooks and the associated Realtime Reporting System are protected by US Patent No. 10,410,534. 110 Avon Street, Charlottesville, VA 22902, US Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) are the key ideas in science that have broad importance within or across multiple science or engineering disciplines. These core ideas build on each other as students progress through grade levels and are grouped into the following four domains: Physical Science, Life Science, Earth and Space Science, and Engineering 3rd Grade Science. Writing Policy. Technology K5 8th Grade Math. 8th Grade Language Arts. 8th Grade Science. 8th Grade Social Studies. 8th Grade Career Management. 8th Grade Visual Arts. 8th Grade Technological Systems. 8th Grade Business & Computer Science. 9th Grade Spanish 1. 8th Grade Physical Education. 8th Grade Weight Lifting & Fitness. The Time4Learning scope and sequence and eighth grade lesson plans pages can help you gain an understanding of what an 8th grade curriculum should include. 8th Grade Curriculum Overview A typical course of study for eighth grade homeschoolers includes math, science, language arts and social studies

8th Grade Physical Science - Hom

7th Grade Resources Textbooks Online Textbook. Class Syllabi. Mrs. Trisler's Life Science Awarded first place and continuing on the the Georgia State Science Fair at the end of March in Athens are April Johnson for her work with various natural tints used to make solar cells, Jamie Rogers for her work with water quality and stream flow. Resources - 8th Grade Physical Science 8th Grade Physical Science Final Exam Info: You will have 4-5 news articles to choose from. Read 1 article and write a reflective response on the article with your reaction and thoughts. Use information from this year's Unit 1 (Materials) & Unit 2 (Water) to make connections and/or to support your opinion elevateScience™ elementary and middle school science curriculum It's more than a science textbook! elevateScience™ is a K-8 phenomena-based science curriculum immersing students in the inquiry process. This is science elevated for problem solving, critical thinking, and the NGSS performance expectations

1 6, 8th grade physical science eoc vocabulary review, physical science packet2, physical science bb 8 6 08 archives gadoe org, chapter power points holt physical science textbook, physical science ms crespo, 8th grade physical science eoc vocabulary review, physical science eoc practice puzzles usatestprep com, biology nature of science answe Time4Learning provides parents with the 8th grade scope and sequence for all the subjects you select. This will help you with the order in which things will be taught and may also include lesson objectives. 8th Grade Math Scope & Sequence; 8th Grade Language Arts Scope & Sequence; 8th Grade Science Scope and & Sequenc The Science Georgia Standards of Excellence are designed to provide foundational knowledge and skills for all students to develop proficiency in science. The Project 2061's Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the follow up work, A Framework for K-12 Science Education were used as the core of the standards to determine appropriate content and.

Algebra 1: Common Core (15th Edition) Charles, Randall I. Publisher Prentice Hall ISBN 978--13328-114- Science holds answers to new medical treatments, energy sources, climate change, and the future. We're committed to Next Generation Science Standards and STEM. Ours is a mission that supports science inquiry, evidence-based reasoning, and the sense of wonder that propels all learning. Explore All Our Science Textbooks and Program What are the four main branches of science?physical science, Earth science, life science, and environmental science 21. A person who studies the chemicals found in air, soil, and water is a(n) . Technology and the Internet (page 19) 22. Most modern scientific equipment is connected to , which allow scientists to record, store, and analyze data. Apologia Physical Science. The Apologia Exploring Science with Physical Science homeschool curriculum will introduce students to the world and the universe! From the composition of air to icebergs to astrophysics, Students will receive thorough lessons in each element of the physical world in Exploring Creation with Physical Science. | Grade 8 Eighth Grade Science Projects. (691 results) Science Buddies' eighth grade science projects are the perfect way for eighth grade students to have fun exploring science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Our eighth grade projects are written and tested by scientists and are specifically created for use by students in the eighth grade

Easy Grammar Ultimate Series: 180 Daily Teaching Lessons, Grade 8 Student Workbook. Dr. Wanda C. Phillips. Dr. Wanda C. Phillips. Isha Enterprises, Inc. / 2009 / Trade Paperback. Our Price. $10.89 Retail: Retail Price. $14.95 Save 27% ($4.06) 4.5 out of 5 stars for Easy Grammar Ultimate Series: 180 Daily Teaching Lessons, Grade 8 Student Workbook Interactive Student Textbook; Science Notebook; Physical Science Study Guide, Student Edition; Science Notebook Science - Glencoe Physical science is often divided December 22, Viewed: Physical Science Physical science 8th Grade workbook answers - Bing. Grade 8 Textbook List - Christian Grade 8 Textbook List Grade 8 Textbook List--Please use in. Find step-by-step solutions and answers to Physical Science - 9780076774562, as well as thousands of textbooks so you can move forward with confidence Free Science worksheets, Games and Projects for preschool, kindergarten, 1st grade, 2nd grade, 3rd grade, 4th grade, 5th grade and 6th Grade kid

Textbook - fultonschools

The State Board of Education has the authority to adopt academic standards for each subject area in grades K-12. The state board adopted Tennessee Academic Standards for Science in October 2016, and they will be implemented in classrooms in the 2018-19 school year. The revised science standards were developed utilizing recommendations found in A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices. Practice, review, and reinforcement of Georgia Milestones EOG tests for grades 6, 7, and 8. Teachers get a 14-day free trial. State-aligned assessments, benchmark analysis, and classroom resources answers and numerous book collections from fictions to scientific research in any way. along with them is this georgia physical science eoc released item answers that can be your partner. 8th Grade Science test Prep Day 1 Physical Science 1.0c - What is Physical ScienceEOC Mental Health of Color Virtual Meet Up Physical Science 050620 Algebra 1. Physical Science Topics - Fifth 5th Grade Physical Science Standards, Grade Level Help, Internet 4 Classrooms Internet resources to prepare for science state assessmen

Free Science Curriculum for All Grades - Life in the Nerddo

Great selection of Homeschool products for your family. Fast Shipping. Shop for Homeschool curriculum, workbooks, and resources for all your homeschooling need Welcome to 8th grade Physical Science! My name Kelly Tatum, and I am a certified middle grades educator with concentrations in science and math. I love science and the opportunity for continuous discovery that it lends itself to. Outside of the classroom, I enjoy spending time with my husband and our four-legged children lists the physical constants important to Earth Science. Appendix E explores the use of graphs in science. 8. Glossary. This section contains all the boldfaced words found in the text along with their definitions. The study of Earth Science can be both stimulating and chal-lenging. The author sincerely hopes that this book will increas

American Book Company workbooks for Georgia cover 100 % of the Georgia Standards of Excellence (GSE) in preparation for the Milestones EOG & EOC assessments Grade 4 ELA. Grade 5 ELA. Grade 6 ELA. Grade 7 ELA. Grade 8 ELA. Gr 3 Science. Gr 4 Science. Gr 5 Science. Gr 6 Science. Gr 7 Science. Gr 8 Science. Have a Print Copy Sent to You. Print. On this page, you will find PDF chapters of the Glencoe Biology Textbook. If you are looking for a biology textbook, then this will suffice. This is a high school level biology textbook and was published in 2009. This book features a zebra running on the cover and was published by Glencoe. Look at the [ We marry Great Content, Meaningful Technology, and Interactive Classroom Experiences to engage students in a way that will help them connect more throughout the K-8 science curriculum. Online Lesson Plans. Online Science Textbook. Student Journals. Flexible Assignments, Assessments, and Grading. Enrichment Resources Welcome to 9th Grade Physical Science! McGraw-Hill Online Textbook . Science World (Current Science) Magazine. Student Password - Dutchmen2016. Click Me! Click Me! 9th Grade Physical Science Course Curriculum Map Correlating to the State of Minnesota Science Standards


Georgia Milestones End of Course Study/Resource Guide

These lessons use gardens to teach a wide range of topics from grades K-8. These garden-based lessons are all aligned to the educational standards for the State of Georgia. They are listed by grade level, and in grades K-5 are further subdivided into earth science, life science, and physical science topics. Grade 6 lessons are aligned with the. Online Text-Book Access Online Textbooks Online Resources Elementary Schools (Grades K-4) (For 7-8 Grade): Student's Network Username = xyz.12000 Student's Network Password High East, Pearland High School, and Dawson High School ) Science Grades 7 - 8 Social Studies Grades 7 - 8 Reading Grades 7 - 8 English Grades 7 - 12. Physical Physical Physical Physical SCIENCE PHYSICAL PHYSICAL Chemical Reactions Task Activity from the Book (page 142) and Assessments (pages 147-148) Summary of Student Learning Activities Observe chemical changes in food, and take the assessments . Task After Reading (page 142) Summary of Student Learning Activities Refer to notes to.

20 6th Grade Scientific Method Worksheet | Worksheet for Kids

include current science article and The Physics of Superheroes by James Kakalios. This will be assigned during the 3rd nine weeks grading period. An outside project and reading assignment will be required. Course Outline: Assignments will be checked weekly and entered into the grade book on Notebook Check/Test Date. 1st rdNine Week My name is Jenn Perkins. I am from Dallas, Georgia. I am happily married to Chris, and we have 2 sons. We moved to Missouri in 2009. I am looking forward to working with the students at Cooter High School another year. My goal is to create a student-centered and engaging classroom that will prepare students for college and life Add to FlexBook® Textbook. Customize. Offline Reader. CK-12 Physical Science Concepts For Middle School. Difficulty Level: At Grade | Created by: CK-12. Last Modified: Mar 31, 2021. Read Resources Details. Table of Contents. 1.0 Introduction to Physical Science. 2.0 Matter and Change. 3.0 Atomic Structure Recommended grade level: 6th-10th Prerequisites: None Class length: 4 weeks Transcript: 0.3 semester credit for survey of science Labs: there are no labs for this class Homework time average per week outside of class: 2 to 4 hours Registration / tuition fee for the class: $155 Teacher: Greg Landry Meets: Wednesdays, 1:00 pm eastern time, June 1, 8, 15, 22, 2022 Air and Weather (FOSS) Pebbles, Sand, and Silt (FOSS 3rd Ed. Science Resources) Balance and Motion (FOSS) Solids and Liquids (FOSS 3rd Ed. Science Resources) Materials In Our World (FOSS 3rd Ed. Science Resources) Except where otherwise indicated, all FOSS modules are Second Edition. FOSS® Next Generation is the curriculum that guides students.

Physical Science - Lcms Eighth Grad

Georgia Holt Science & Technology: Physical Science View larger image. By: Textbooks Grade Levels: Sixth grade, Seventh grade, Eighth grade Submitted By: Bookshare Import Usage Restrictions: This is a copyrighted book. Reviews. No Rating Yet. Identify ways that energy is converted from one form to another. Determine that sunlight is the primary source of most of the usable energy on Earth. Solar cells convert sunlight to electricity. Sunlight causes wind and rain, powering wind turbines and hydroelectricity. Sunlight provides energy for plant growth

Science / Science Overview - fultonschools

6th Grade Science Energy Unit Information Milestones Domain/Weight: Geology 4 0% Purpose/Goal(s): Students will identify renewable and nonrenewable resources Textbook page 118 *Essential Vocabulary listed in the Standards **Supplemental Vocabulary listed in the state frameworks and/or other state document Essential* Renewabl Holt McDougal Information : Administrators - as you wrap up the current school year and prepare for Back to School 2021, please review our new checklist. For more info please click here. Welcome to Holt McDougal Online! We need to confirm your identity. Please select your State and District, and then click Log In Physical Science Textbook 8th Grade Answers Author: PDF Creator Subject: Download Explore the natural world, engineering, space, military technology, physics and even Glencoe Physical Science integrates accurate and comprehensive coverage of physics and chemistry with mathematics through accessible text,

Science - glencoe.co

7 Best Physical Science Textbooks 2019Holt McDougal Physical Science Overview What makes a good life? Lessons from the longest study Holt science technology 8th grade answer key, Holt science and technology physical science Life, Earth, and Physical Georgia: Interactive Textbook Answer Key: HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON: Amazon.com.au. Bookmark File PDF 8th Grade Science Study Guide 1 8th Grade Science Study Guide 1 Getting the books 8th grade science study guide 1 now is not type of inspiring means. You could not unaided going taking into account books increase or library or borrowing from your links to way in them Bookmark File PDF 8th Grade Science Study Guide Louisiana The 8th Grade CST Science Practice Workbook: Astronomy is a comprehensive practice guide for all middle school students studying the 8th grade California physical science curriculum. Major concepts i Example coding for grades K-8 standards: S5.PS2.1. 5 is the grade where the standard is taught. PS2 indicates that this standard is part of the physical science disciplinary core idea number two: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions. 1 is the standard number. (Consecutive numbering which restarts in each DCI for a particular grade. Physical Science, Measurement, and Scientific Method (34 cards) 2015-04-26 12. 6th Grade Motion, Forces and Energy (12 cards) 2018-09-26 11. 8th grade metric (11 cards) 2015-01-10 11. Energy transformation terms (12 cards) 2016-05-15 11. Practice Waves Unit Vocabulary (18 cards) 2019-11-06 11

Holt Science and Technology : Physics: Directed Reading

This quiz contains 7 questions. 8. Chapter 1, section 2 Convection Currents and the Mantle Flashcards, matching, concentration, word search. Mrs. Venn. 9. Earth Science Chap. 8 Changing Earth's Surface. Debbie Hubschman. Prentice Hall Science Explorer - Earth Science - Vocabulary Science Explorer C2009 Lep Student Edition Physical Science Georgia Physical Science Holt Earth Science 1. Characteristics of Waves 2. Sound 3. The Electromagnetic Spectrum 4. Light Science Explorer: Grade 6 Presents an introduction to the human body and its systems. Focus on Physical Science Science Explorer C2009 Book O Student Edition Sound. 584. $5.50. PDF. Science Interactive Notebook - Earth's AtmosphereStudents (and teachers) will love the activities from this next chapter in the Earth Science Interactive Notebook Series: Earth's Atmosphere. Each chapter in the series will showcase many activities for the students (both middle and high school) to pr