Elective C section Scotland

Can you have an elective C-Section in Scotland? 8 answers / Last post: 07/11/2013 at 11:25 am. Abb75tvr. 04/11/2013 at 6:49 pm. I had a horrendous pregnancy plagued with SPD where I ended up on crutches. Was in labour for three days, epidural wore off at 10cm dilated. Baby was 9lb10oz and got stuck, so ended up with forceps and an episiotomy If you make a request for a c-section for any non-medical reason, such as anxiety about childbirth, your request will be treated as a request for an 'elective c-section' or a 'maternal request c-section'

A caesarean section, or C-section, is an operation to deliver your baby through a cut made in your tummy and womb. The cut is usually made across your tummy, just below your bikini line. A caesarean is a major operation that carries a number of risks, so it's usually only done if it's the safest option for you and your baby a planned (elective) procedure, when a need for the operation becomes apparent during pregnancy. an emergency procedure, when circumstances before or during labour call for delivery of the baby by unplanned caesarean. A caesarean section is usually carried out under epidural or spinal anaesthetic, where the lower part of your body is numbed

Can you have an elective C-Section in Scotland

ISD Scotland defines a cesarean as elective if it is performed during the day with both the patient and staff fully prepared. Analysis was also performed according to whether planned VBAC was attempted with or without labor induction (including surgical and/or medical induction) compared to ERCS The blog Forever Amber has lots on it about the author's elective c section. She is also in Scotland, you might find it helpful I had an emergency section with my first baby, and have asked for a ELCS with my second, I know it is the right choice for me, and have actually had less resistance from medical professionals than I expected An ERCS is an elective repeat caesarean section. They're planned and you'd normally have an ERCS after 39 weeks of pregnancy. Babies born by caesarean earlier than this are more likely to need help with their breathin

But if you want a c-section rather than a vagainal birth, that's your choice, and they are obliged to give you one. Despite the fact that you're entitled to a c-section, 15% of NHS trusts deny requests for elective c-sections. A shocking number of women don't realise that it's up to them, not their doctor, how they give birth Elective c-sections can carry an excellent prognosis for maternal and fetal viability when timed correctly and may be less stressful to the bitch, puppies and attending veterinarian than waiting for a potential dystocia. Animals that are particularly good candidates are those with a history of dystocia or a c-section and animals that have small.

Right to a C-Section - Birthright

I had an elective c-section in Scotland last year. It was partly medically requested and partly on my preference. In any meetings with consultants, I just calmly explained that that was my preference, listened to the chat you get about risks etc and considered them but was clear that I wanted a c-section Elective c section in NHS, my experience! (sorry if a bit long) I decided to write my story to help women like me, who cannot find many stories about elective NHS c sections. As most of you know, the latest guidelines suggest that if a woman really wants to get a c section then she should get one, even if there is no medical need for it. I am. Next review due December 2021 A caesarean section or c-section is an operation to deliver your baby through a surgical cut in your abdomen (tummy). In the UK, more than one in four babies are delivered this way. For some women who have complications in their pregnancy, caesarean section can be the safest way to deliver their baby If you know you will need a c-section before you go into labour, this is called a planned (elective) c-section. If you and your healthcare team decide at short notice that a c-section is the safest way to deliver your baby, it is called an emergency c-section. About one in four women who give birth in the UK have a c-section

The 25% overall rate in the UK is made up of approximately 15% emergency CS, and 10% elective CS. She says that maternal demand is increasing and this has a knock-on effect on future pregnancies as women following one CS are more likely to have another Having a caesarean: all your questions answered. Around 25% of mums have a c-section birth because sometimes it's the safest option. C-sections are undoubtedly a necessary option for every woman going into labour. With any luck, you'll have a vaginal birth What happens. a 10 to 20cm cut is made in your tummy and womb - this will usually be a horizontal cut just below your bikini line, although sometimes a vertical cut below your bellybutton may be made. your baby is delivered through the opening - this usually takes 5 to 10 minutes and you may feel some tugging at this point

Caesarean section - NH

Women who may be offered an elective c-section may want to participate in the decision more actively and learn more about the benefits and risks, including those raised by this study. Criteri A c-section may be planned (elective) if your baby is in a bottom down or breech position or lying sideways, or if there are other complications. If you have an unplanned c-section instead of a planned vaginal delivery, it's known as an emergency caesarean. How is a c-section carried out? A c-section is a major operation Approximately 30% of all births are now delivered via C-section and more related to convenience for doctors and patients rather than emergencies. However, this convenience has come at a cost for children. Children who come into the world by Caesarean section are more often affected by allergies than those born through the birth canal An elective caesarean section is usually planned after 39 weeks of pregnancy. This is because there's a chance your baby might have breathing problems soon after birth if they're born any earlier. This is less likely if they're born after 39 weeks. (NICE, 2011) Share of elective C-Section births in Scotland 2019/20. 16.7%. Detailed statistics. Childbirth: method of delivery in NHS hospitals in Scotland 2019/20. Health of the mother

elective C-section, also known as planned C-section or ELCS. An emergency C-section takes place after you've gone into labour, while an elective C-section happens before labour has started. A 2017 survey by the Care Quality Commission found that 15% of women who gave birth in January 2017 had an emergency Csection, and 11% had a planned C. Women can choose Caesarean birth. Pregnant women who ask for a Caesarean delivery should be allowed to have the operation, even if there is no medical need, according to new guidelines for England. Caesarean section, also known as C-section, or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure by which one or more babies are delivered through an incision in the mother's abdomen, often performed because vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk. Reasons for the operation include obstructed labor, twin pregnancy, high blood pressure in the mother, breech birth, and problems with. To help answer that question, a team led by Mairead Black of the University of Aberdeen tracked data from second births for more than 40,000 women in Scotland. All of the women had a first child..

Information About Your Caesarean Section Before And After

Exploring C-section stigma and the emotional scars. At this point, I retreated to my fear of scars. More worryingly, I remembered all the C-section vs. natural birth debates I witnessed online and offline. All the shaming in passive-aggressive tones for moms who especially choose an elective cesarean section (CS) C-section rates ranged from a low of 17.5% in Denmark to 29.4% in Western Australia, all of which are greater than the 10%-15% rate endorsed by the World Health Organization. Elective C-section rates varied by country from 39% to 57%. Of note, pediatric hospital care in all four countries is free, so economic considerations didn't drive. To help answer that question, a team led by Mairead Black of the University of Aberdeen tracked data from second births for more than 40,000 women in Scotland. All of the women had a first child delivered by C-section. Their second births were either a planned (elective) C-section, unplanned C-section or vaginal delivery

i. Imacoolmom1. Posted 10/19/20. Has anyone been told they need to self isolate before their elective c section in Scotland?? And do you know if a covid test is carried out for yourself and birthing partner before the section too? I'm worrying myself as my partner will need to go to work up until the day of my section he can't afford to. With an elective c-section, I'll be given a day and time to turn up at the hospital, at which point I know exactly what will happen to me. When I visited the labour ward two weeks ago, the nurse there walked me through - literally - the entire process, right down to showing me the room I'd most likely be waiting in before the surgery, and the route I'd take to the theatre A caesarean section (C-section) is an elective or emergency operation used to help babies be born. About 1 in 3 deliveries are completed this way. Elective caesarean section. If you know beforehand you'll be having a caesarean section, it's called an elective operation There are benefits and risks with both planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned VBAC for women with a prior caesarean birth. If you are fit and healthy, VBAC and ERCS are usually safe choices, with very small risks (RCOG, 2015a; RCOG, 2016; Norman and Stock, 2018). Giving birth vaginally carries small risks for you and your baby.

C Section during Covid 19. . Like all expectant mothers who have been effected by this pandemic, I was terrified that I was leading myself, my partner and my new daughter into an epicentre of infection and that current NHS stretches would effect our plans to have what we wanted; an elective c section in a safe environment Hospital Bag Checklist: What to Pack for an Elective C-Section Before I went into hospital to have Max, I read just about every hospital bag checklist I could get my hands on, and then set about buying every single item they recommended.Seriously, there was a period of a few weeks towards the end of my pregnancy where there seemed to be deliveries arriving every day, and every single one of. Second guessing my elective c-section. I'm due with #4. The first 3 were all vaginal births that lead to some birth injuries (prolapsed uterus and bladder, tearing requiring stitches each time) with a couple of other things, as they were all big. I haemorrhaged with all 3 of them as well, one requiring a transfusion, the others borderline That's good news for mothers who have had C-sections, or request C-sections or have to choose between attempted vaginal birth after a previous C-section and an elective repeat C-section

Emergency C-Sections Lead To Better Outcomes Than PlannedPippa Middleton will get the title og Lady Glen Affric

Planned mode of delivery after previous cesarean section

Unfortunately, this didn't happen but my elective c-section was wonderfully civilised and a complete contrast to the first birth! Amanda. Vaginal birth after a c-section (VBAC) If you have only had one c-section before, you should be able to give birth vaginally if you're carrying one baby and you go into labour after 37 weeks Caesarean section. Clinical guideline [CG132] Published: 23 November 2011 Part 1. Cesarean section has been part of human culture since ancient times and there are tales in both Western and non-Western cultures of this procedure resulting in live mothers and offspring. According to Greek mythology Apollo removed Asclepius, founder of the famous cult of religious medicine, from his mother's abdomen Scheduling The C-Section You can estimate a bitch will be due to whelp 63 days after the day she ovulated. Ovulation occurs when the progesterone reaches 4 to 8 ng/dl. At our [

Elective C-Section Mumsne

The University of Edinburgh is a charitable body, registered in Scotland, with registration number SC005336, VAT Registration Number GB 592 9507 00, and is acknowledged by the UK authorities as a Recognised body which has been granted degree awarding powers Childhood admissions for infection were increased with C-section delivery with both elective (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.12-1.13) and emergency (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.12) procedures, relative to vaginal.

Planning a repeat caesarean birth NC

Alice Jones, a 32-year-old civil servant from South Wales and a member of the pregnancy resource Emma's Diary, gave birth to her five-month-old son via C-section A systematic review of 79 studies of elective C-sections versus vaginal deliveries, including observational and randomized trials, has shown that women with C-section have decreased urinary incontinence at 3 months and decreased perineal pain in comparison with those having a vaginal delivery. 9 On the other hand, C-section was associated with. Elective Caesarean Sections. 28/04/2016; Catherine Henry; Health & Medical, Reproductive health; One in three Australian babies is born by caesarean section (C-section). C-sections may be either elective or emergency. It is a major surgery involving an incision made through the mother's abdomen and uterus in order to deliver the baby C-section rate is at all-time high The rate of Caesarean sections in the United States is at an all-time high, accounting for about 31 percent of births. There are lots of reasons: older moms, multiple births, the threat of malpractice lawsuits, the preference of mothers and doctors and the risks of having a vaginal birth after a previous. About one in three births in the United States is via C-section. That rate has soared from about 5 percent in 1970 to 20 percent in 1996 to 32 percent in 2015, according to the Centers for.

You Are Entitled To An NHS C-Section If You Want One

  1. Play Scotland. Play Scotland have a #playeveryday campaign. A bundle of boredom busting fun activities that children and young people can use to encourage imagination, creativity and play time, many of which are suitable for indoors or confined spaces, and most of which are low cost or free
  2. The influence of both individual and area based socioeconomic status on temporal trends in Caesarean sections in Scotland 1980-2000. BMC Public Health , (in press) [ abstract ] Cite This Page
  3. Scotland Population 1980-1984 P S L T Emergency CS, Elective CS for breech SVD B Age, marital status, deprivation, birthweight, baby gender, maternal height and induction Mollison et al. Scotland Population 1980-1997 P S L CS SVD, IVD P B P: Age, gravida, socioeconomic status, gestation; B: Unadjusted Huttly et al
  4. e whether individual social class, area deprivation or both are related to Caesarean sections in Scotland and.
  5. This groundbreaking research is based on 2010 United Kingdom government statistics, which show a high induction of labor rate (39%) and a high C-section rate (67%) in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (compared to 21% of the general maternal population). We need to think about the enormously high C-section rate rather than just accepting.
  6. ation of pregnancy (also referred to as late-term abortion) describes the ter
  7. 116 of these providers submitted birth data relating to babies born in May 2017. Among women that had a booking appointment in May 2017, 54 per cent were within the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. This varied across regions with the highest proportion (58 per cent) of women having appointments in the first 10 weeks in the North of England.

Jan. 14, 2004 -- Women who deliver their first child by C-section may have more trouble getting pregnant again, a new report from Scotland suggests.. When compared with moms who had difficult. The lowest perinatal death rate was in women undergoing elective repeat C-section: 1 death in a total of 9,014 deliveries, Dr. Smith of Cambridge (England) University said in a poster presentation at the meeting. To compare the results with U.S. practices, it would be helpful to know the rate and type of inductions in Scotland, how quickly. Show less. This hospital scored 80.00 out of 120.00 possible points. Support for Nursing Workforce. Hospitals should assess their nursing staff levels and core competencies, included nurses in leadership, and develop and implement plans to address any areas of improvement. more In other words, women who choose C-section for breech want to protect their babies from any risk, no matter how small, at the cost of pain and potential suffering to themselves. The same thing.

Derrick Rose scored 25 points off the bench, Reggie Bullock added 24 and the New York Knicks beat the Los Angeles Clippers 106-100 on Sunday to snap an eight-game skid at Staples Center A C-section is terrifying, but to me, it's familiar. End the stigma They say a mother knows best, but that doesn't mean we need to pass judgement on other mums - and neither should anyone else

Pregnancy Diagnosis and Timing Elective C-sections

The analysis, published in PLOS Medicine, used data on 7,174,787 singleton births in Denmark, Scotland, England and Australia from 1996 to 2015. Of these, 1,681,966 were by C-section, 43 percent. A DOCTOR faces disciplinary action after failing to give a woman an anaesthetic for a caesarean section. By The Newsroom. Friday, 24th February 2012, 12:17 pm. The woman, who was a patient at St. Unplanned C-Sections Have Unexpected Benefits, Study Finds. While many moms do their best to avoid c-sections, birth doesn't always go as planned. And that's not necessarily a bad thing: A.

A C-section is major abdominal surgery; walking around will typically take a few days, and any physical activity — including standing, rolling over, or taking the stairs — will be painful for a while, perhaps several weeks. Vaginal birth can also be traumatic, and recovery can be long, but on average it's shorter I had a really hideous first natural birth which I won't go into but subsequently my daughter aged 7 has disabilities due to being recussitated etc. I have decided 7 years on that I want an elective c section. I spoke to my consultant who said he wouldn't say no but wanted me to come for a meet to discuss pros and cons In your shoes I would probably go for an elective c section. I've had one elective c section and one traumatic birth, the c section healing was much easier. I'm sorry you went through all of that, and that your pain was dismissed Do C section babies have more problems? Babies born by elective c-section (a cesarean performed for no medical reason, but rather upon request) have a higher risk of being born preterm or late preterm, both of which carry with it health issues that go along with prematurity, like breathing difficulty, development problems, and difficulty breastfeeding

Refused elective section

In this VETgirl online veterinary continuing education blog, Dr. Garret Pachtinger, VMD, DACVECC addresses anesthesia for the C-section veterinary patient!Anesthesia can be a scary thought for any patient, let alone when you are performing anesthesia on a patient that is pregnant! Simply put, we know there are a multitude of physiological and hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy and. It's looking like I'll be getting a C-section. Curious as to when others have theirs scheduled. I'm guessing before 40 weeks but just curious! Share your due dates below! In July 2017, due to her weight and personal preference, Rachael was granted an elective C-section at Ipswich Hospital, set for January 16. It was a huge relief, says Rachael

Elective c section in NHS, my experience! (sorry if a bit

All the information you need to enjoy a positive, natural & gentle Caesarean (Cesarean/C-Section). Including further resources, real life stories and how KG Hypnobirthing will empower, educate and support you before and during your babies birth Delaying elective C-section until after 39 weeks gestation has been shown to reduce respiratory morbidity, A study of hospital discharge records from Scotland assessed the diagnosis of asthma. If you've decided you'd like an elective C-section, you may find you have to jump through fewer hoops to get the birth you want at a private hospital, compared with if you're booked in with the NHS. Once you've given birth, you'll have a private en suite room at the hospital with hotel-like facilities and catering This is known as elective C-Section surgery i.e. it is scheduled in advance because it is not a medical emergency. In 2018, a medical tribunal in Scotland found an obstetrician guilty of misconduct after she was found not to have sufficiently addressed the risk of continuing with a natural delivery when the mother was not fully dilated 2013 was 25.5%2; the majority were emergency (14.8%) rather than elective (10.7%) caesarean births. The caesarean delivery rates for Wales, 3 Northern Ireland 4 and Scotland 5 in 2012-2013 were 27.5%, 29.8% and 27.3% respectively. Hence, counselling women for and managing birth after caesarean delivery are important issues. P P P P D D A B

of SSI across Scotland, Ireland and Wales (HPS 2008). The cumulative incidence 4th C-Section 3 (1.6%) N 190 (100%) (100%) C-Section Type Elective 119 (51.1%) Emergency 114 (48.9%) N 233 (100%) Table 2: Patient history Fig. 2a shows the number of C-Section operations per month in high BMI patients. Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept. There, a delivery alone can cost you over £7000 - and forget about having a C-section or even needing an epidural. In the UK, the figures would, potentially, be equally as bleak

Top 5 Things to See in Scotland: Scottish tourism guide

Caesarean section Health Information Bupa U

  1. Almost 30% of babies here are delivered by C-section compared to 24% in England, 26% in Wales and Scotland and 25% in Ireland. Mr Poots said: It costs several thousand pounds more for a Caesarean.
  2. Scotland County Hospital has four physicians that deliver babies. Randy Tobler, MD. Jeff Davis, DO. Heather Martin, DO. Additionally, these General Surgeons deliver babies via c-section: Celeste Miller-Parish, DO and Lisa Rollison, DO. Call 660-465-2828 to schedule an appointment with any of these physicians to discuss maternity care. Women's.
  3. Previous studies mainly focus on women's level of satisfaction after an emergency C-section. 8 -10 One study in Scotland found that a third of the women with emergency C-sections expressed negative feelings toward their delivery, compared with 13% of those undergoing elective C-sections. 8 A study in Brazil reported that while 83% of women.

C-sections - everything you need to know Tommy'

Nevertheless, several studies did assess outcomes by classification of cesarean delivery (elective or emergency) or timing of cesarean delivery (pre-labour, intrapartum, or second stage of labour) without significant changes in the ORs of complications [25,27,54,56,58,60,71] Information you need to work out your employee's Statutory Maternity Pay ( SMP ): the date the baby's due - from your employee's MATB1 form. your employee's intended start date for SMP. To evaluate the risk of delivering vaginally compared to an elective cesarean delivery after a previous cesarean birth, researchers looked at health data from 74,043 women in Scotland who had.

RCOG statement on emergency caesarean section rate

  1. Among the women who underwent elective repeat cesarean section at term, 6.3% underwent the procedure at 37 completed weeks of gestation, 29.5% at 38 weeks, 49.1% at 39 weeks, and just over 15% at.
  2. How pre-admission testing works. If you are being booked to attend for an elective admission (e.g. Induction of Labour or Caesarean Section), your midwife or consultant will arrange for you to have a preadmission test at our Women's Hospital at a pre-booked time. Please enter the main Women's Hospital car park and follow the orange signs.
  3. CALL US TODAY at 623-934-7243 Check out our elective C-section information handout. Caesarean section, Cesarian section, Section, Surgical birthing, Cesarian, dog C-section. If you are looking for a great vet, veterinarian, pet vet or animal doctor in Glendale Arizona, Peoria AZ, Surprise, Avondale, Goodyear, Buckeye, Sun City West, Phoenix or.
  4. 46. 46. A series of medical failures led to the death of a young mother who had begged to be given a caesarean section, a coroner has found. Frances Cappuccini, a 30-year-old primary school.
  5. Inquiry under the Fatal Accidents and Sudden Deaths Inquiry (Scotland) Act 1976. DETERMINATION. by. M Shirley Foran, Sheriff of North Strathclyde at Kilmarnock. Following an Inquiry held at Kilmarnock Sheriff Court on 26 to 30 January 2015, 2 to 5 February 2015, 9 to 10 February 2015, and 16 February 2015. into the death of ELIJAH STIRLING.

Having a caesarean: all your questions answered Mother&Bab

There are three possible outcomes for a trial of labor: a successful vaginal birth, an emergency C-section, or an elective C-section. Only 74% of women who attempt VBAC succeed; the other 26% ends up needing a C-section, often on an emergency basis. Emergency surgeries are inherently more risky than planned ones A major international study, published in the Lancet, shows rates of C-section delivery have increased from 19.7 per cent in 2000 to 26.2 per cent in 2015, putting Britain among the highest in. HIV vs HCV: similarities and differences. Blood borne. Also present in semen, vaginal fluid and breast milk. Blood borne. Also may be present in semen and vaginal fluid. Risk of MTCT of HCV is higher if you are HIV positive. In the UK, women with coinfection are only recommnded to have an elective C-section to lower the risk if they have a. Routine pre- cesarean Staphylococcus aureus screening and decolonization: a cost -effectiveness analysis. Read Summary. Type: Economic Evaluations (Add filter) Show result download options. Click export CSV or RIS to download the entire page of results or use the checkbox in each result to select a subset of records to download. Export a CSV file Congenital Anomalies in Scotland (2012 - 2017) In 2017, 1,640 babies affected by a serious congenital anomaly were identified among pregnancies ending in Scotland. This is 308.4 per 10,000 total (live and still) births. 1,321 (81%) of affected babies were live born. This is 249.5 per 10,000 live births

Caesarean section - What happens - NH

  1. Researchers from the University of Oxford studied the health of 74,043 women in Scotland who had previously had a C-section. Of these, 45,579 women opted for ERCS birth whereas 28,464 chose VBAC; 28% had non-elective repeat caesarean delivery
  2. A canine cesarean section is a surgical operation performed to give birth to a litter of puppies without the need for a natural delivery.C-sections in dogs are often used in emergency situations, but can also be prescribed preventively in specific dog breeds, or in common complicated birth scenarios.. A hysterotomy (c-section) is generally a safe surgical operation when scheduled ahead of time
  3. And there was a direct relationship between maternal age and the likelihood of C-section. Fewer than 5 percent of Scottish 16-year-olds underwent emergency C-sections
  4. Elective C-section only; no history of inflammatory bowel disease, ano-rectal surgery or neurologic disorder that could affect bladder function: Not by type: 6, 26 Bugg 8: 275: UK: 2000: 1 hospital: Mailed: Not pregnant at time of postpartum survey; not incontinent prior to pregnancy: Not by type: 43 Chaliha 26: 549 a: UK: 1996-1997: 1.
  5. Celebs Go Dating star Anna Williamson has admitted paying for an elective Caesarean was the 'best money she's ever spent'. The dating agent, 38, gave birth to her second child, daughter Eleanora.
  6. • elective hip replacement services • neonatal services. For each service area, in order to identify existing evidence on financial and other pressures and to inform the interviews with stakeholders, we reviewed the following: • relevant research literature, policy documents and grey literature, dating back to 200
  7. • Milk samples from mothers with elective (but not non-elective) C-section contained a different bacterial community than milk samples from mothers with vaginal delivery . Cabrera-Rubio et al., 2012 (Sweden, Scotland, Germany, Italy and Spain) •Samples collected from 605 infants at 6 wk of age and ~4 wk after the introduction of solid food

Times overstates risks of planned vs

Rosie is a qualified midwife based in Bristol. She travelled to Tanzania with us in 2018 to undertake her midwifery elective and had what she describes as a 'life-changing experience'. We spoke to Rosie to find out a bit more about her time in our partner hospital and her travel experiences out in Africa List of Guidelines - Eras. All ERAS® Society Guidelines are available free at the ERAS® Society website. The Guidelines are published by the ERAS®Society and in some cases also as a joint effort with other medical societies such as The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and the International Association for. Elective labor induction at 39 weeks' gestation leads to a mean 145-g (5.1-oz) lower birth weight compared with expectant management, but there is conflicting evidence about the effects on rates. Given the sudden and unexpected nature of an emergency caesarean section (EmCS) coupled with an increased risk of psychological distress, it is particularly important to understand the psychosocial outcomes for women. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify, collate and examine the evidence surrounding women's psychosocial outcomes of EmCS worldwide This was a large population based study in Scotland that looked at outcomes between the years 1992 and '97. They compared a trial of labor after cesarean with about 15,500 women to planned elective repeat cesarean with about 9,000 women, and they compared both of those groups to first-time mothers who went into labor, about 137,000 first-time.

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