Zoysia - Compare Varieties. 'Emerald' zoysiagrass has a very fine leaf texture but is less cold-tolerant than other zoysiagrass varieties. 'Meyer' has a wider leaf than 'Emerald' and has good cold tolerance. 'El Toro' grows rapidly and has leaf width similar to 'Meyer' Zeon vs Zorro vs Palisades Zoysia - Have to decide today Post by ckeck » Mon May 10, 2021 6:43 pm Hello everyone, I'm hoping a few folks can chime in with their personal experiences, especially if you've planted more than one of these varieties of Zoysia in the past Geo Zoysia is a cultivar of Zoysia grass with a thin bladed leaf that forms a very lush lawn. It shares the drought and shade resistance of the other varieties. This grass has a fine, soft texture and can be left unmowed as it only grows to a height of 6-12 inches (15-30 cm). When left unmowed, it forms a humpy convoluted surface which is.
Zeon vs. Emerald Zoysia. Dave (7b) 3 years ago. I plan on installing zoysia sod in my front yard in the next few weeks. The entire yard receives enough sun to support both Zeon and Emerald zoysia. I'm having a hard time choosing between the two varieties. There will not be a lot of foot traffic in the yard - I'm primarily concerned about. varieties. Zeon, a medium-fine-textured variety of Z. matrella released in 1996, is very tolerant of extended periods of drought and is adapted to both clayey and sandy soils. Zeon spreads faster from plugs and sprigs than the inter-specific hybrid Emerald Zeon Zoysia Compadre Zoysia and has demonstrated good insect resistance and shade tolerance
Keyword is that zoysia can tolerate shade but it does not do well in only 5-6 hours sun. The southern most side of my backyard barely barely grows or gets mowed. Be prepared for PGR, preventative fungicide program, low N and higher HOC to look decent. My emerald looks and does better in shade / moisture vs neighbors zeon . Today we are looking at two grasses in the zoysia category. Let's look at Palisade.. Zoysia japonica, more commonly known as Japanese or Korean lawn grass, was introduced to the United States in 1895—a bit earlier than Manila grass. When compared to other Zoysia grass types, Z. japonica is faster growing and more cold tolerant. Japanese lawngrass is the only type of zoysia that you can grow from seed, although most homeowners.
Geo Zoysia is a fine-bladed variety that looks amazing in a landscape if maintained properly. Developer John Chapman of Craft Turf Farms discusses the pre-i.. Zeon is compatible with a wide range of soil conditions. It can handle full sun or light to medium shade. It has good drought tolerance and very few insect or disease problems. Zeon would be the replacement grass for the old standard, Emerald zoysia. Compared to Emerald, Zeon has a faster rate of spread Leisure Time zoysia is a relatively new cultivar that is promoted to be tolerant of shade, heat, cold and drought. It has a medium-fine texture and a dark green color. Geo zoysiagrass is a fine-bladed turfgrass with dark green color. The feel of the grass is very soft, and it can be mowed to 1 inch with a reel mower or to 2 inches with a rotary.
Zeon has good shade and drought tolerance. Royal zoysia is distinguished from other zoysia grasses by its fine texture, high rhizome and tiller density. Royal exhibits excellent salt tolerance, shade tolerance, and rapid regrowth and recovery from damage. Geo zoysia is a fine-textured turfgrass with dark green color. The feel of the grass is. Zeon Zoysia: While Zeon Zoysia bears the Emerald resemblance and fine blade texture, it is much softer than its prickly counterpart. The variety is also drought and shade tolerant to help it grow in almost any area in our Dallas Ft. Worth service area, making it the perfect choice for residential or commercial landscaping. This particular strand was born and raised in Texas and was such an. Zeon was engineered and developed to provide the landscape industry with a superior fine bladed zoysia, with increased shade tolerance, low incidence of thatch production, and an accelerated rate of spread. In addition, Zeon is fairly low maintenance and can be mowed using a standard rotary type machine. Buy Sod Online
Dixie - posted 12 May 2009 11:48. Go to www.theturfgrassgroup.com and read about JaMur zoysia and then view the photo gallery. JaMur recovers faster than any other zoysia, is more cold and drought resistant, medium blade, cuts with a rotary mower. I'm having 6000 sf installed in two weeks in North Carolina Zoysia Varieties. Superior fine-bladed zoysia, perfect for barefeet. Superior quality in full sun and even partially shaded areas. Beautiful drought-resistant and cold tolerant, dark green zoysia. Wider-blade zoysia, drought and disease resistant BRF Zeon is a fine-bladed Zoysiagrass. It has a beautiful dark green color and soft leaf texture making it a true barefoot lawn grass.. BRF Zeon Zoysia's extensive root system allows it to quickly recover from drought, it can handle full sun, and has excellent shade tolerance only requiring as little as 3 hours of direct sunlight . Avoid mowing at heights higher than recommended. The most widely planted Zoysia variety in Florida is Empire. Empire should be mowed at 2 - 2.5 inches. Dwarf varieties such as Geo require a lower mowing height of 1.5 to 2 inches
Emerald Zoysia is a dark green, fine bladed lawn grass. It is drought tolerant, shade tolerant, cold tolerant and our slowest growing zoysia. Developed in 1955 by the Georgia Agricultural Experiment station and the USDA, Emerald zoysia is our #1 seller for fine bladed zoysias for home lawns Zeon zoysia is a very good sod to install. The pieces of sod hold together really well, and establish fairly fast. Zeon Zoysia Maintenance. This type of sod is very easy to mow and maintain. It is a slow grower, and doesn't require a lot of mowing. Zeon zoysia blades tend to grow very low and side ways
Four Zoysia Varieties Promise Shade Tolerance, but at a Price By Mary M. Porter T he name zoysia may not roll off the tongues of many people outside the industry but those same people may soon be rolling out this new grass for golf courses, parks, and home landscapes, according to Texas A&M turfgrass breeder Dr. Milt Engelke Geo Zoysia. Geo Zoysia is a fine bladed premium turfgrass for home and commercial use. For the discerning homeowner, Geo is the clear choice for its good shade and cold tolerance, beautiful fine texture, and excellent performance. Geo has a lighter green color and truly stands out in a landscape
Call 281-431-7441. Zoysia grass and dogs -- can it work for you? Houston Grass South Owner Michael Romine answers a question about the benefits and potential problems when you combine Zoysia grass and dogs. We deliver Houston's best quality Zoysia grass, Bermuda grass, and St. Augustine grass grown on our family farm Meyer Zoysia develops a very dense turf, demonstrates good cold tolerant and grows well in partial shade. Meyer Zoysia grass is best adapted to the transition zone where summers are too hot and humid for cool season grasses and winters too cold for bermudagrass. Blade-width: 4-5mm. Emerald Green Color. Soft Feel Get the Best Looking Lawn with Our Zoysia Grass. Call 281-431-7441 for answers to your questions and a quick quote for your project. When people ask us about the best variety of Zoysia grass to buy, and ease of care is a factor, we try to push them toward the Palisades Zoysia. However, if the fine-bladed look or better shade tolerance is. . Zoysia grass (Zoysia spp.) is a dense, warm-season turf grass that thrives at temperatures between 80 and 95 degrees Fahrenheit. It usually establishes by sod or plugs. Zorro Zoysia grass is a common type of warm-season grass that is famous for its enchanting deep green color and resistance against shade, drought, traffic, and low temperature. It is a top choice for domestic and commercial lawns, golf courses, and parks. In this article, we will highlight the nature and characteristics of zorro zoysia grass.
There are several types of Zoysia grass to consider as you plan your lawn. This lawn care guide provides an overview of the types of zoysia grass and will help you decide which one will be most successful in your yard.. Japonica, Matrella and Tenuifolia Zoysia Grass. These are the names of the three Zoysia varieties that were used to create all of the commercial Zoysia grass types currently. Palisades Zoysia is a great choice for families with kids and dogs. This zoysia japonica grass is a vegetatively produced, medium broad textured, high density turf suitable for home lawns, golf fairways and roughs, sports fields, industrial parks, and highway medians The designation of cool season vs. warm season grasses, despite their names, actually refer to geographic regions where the annual climate is most suited to one or another type of grass. For the purposes of turf selection, the US is divided into two climate regions, with a transitional region in between. The southern states, starting along the.
Zeon zoysia is a fine-bladed grass that is especially easy to maintain. It grows quickly and is tolerant to drought and shade, making it an ideal replacement for similar turf varieties. This grass is often used for sports fields, lawns and golf fairways and its soft texture has given it the nickname barefoot. . Developed by researchers at Kansas State University and Texas A&M University, Innovation is very cold-tolerant. This hardy yet attractive turfgrass is suitable for the southern two-thirds of the United States. It is an excellent choice for users in the transition zone
Zeon Zoysia is the grass of the 2016 Olympics in Rio! Golf has returned as an Olympic sport to the 2016 Games, the grass the golfers are playing on is Zeon Zoysia. The grass was selected for use on the tees, roughs and fairways of the course being built specifically for the Olympics. Zeon's beauty and playability contributed to the choice Zoysia grass is one of the most popular types of lawn grasses especially in warm water climates. This is because: • Zoysia is far more heat tolerant than other grasses. • It's also more cold tolerant than other grasses. • Zoysia tolerates more traffic than other grasses and so is great for recreation areas on the lawn
Average cost of Zoysia sod is around $235 per pallet (a pallet covers 450 sq. ft of area). On the other hand, the average cost of Bermuda Hybrid sod (like Tifway 419 or TexTurf 10) would be in the range of $155-160 per pallet. So, Bermuda sod is cheaper than Zoysia sod. In comparison, Bermuda Seed option is the cheapest of all Zeon Zoysia. Zeon Zoysia is the #1 selling zoysia in America. Zeon is the grass of the 2016 Olympics in Rio. It has a beautiful dark green color, fine bladed and soft leaf texture making it a true barefoot lawn grass. Read More. Emerald Zoysia
L1F is an extremely fine-textured, high end, dwarf type of zoysia. It has a soft, cushiony feel and erect, upright growth habit that make it ideal for golf courses and home lawns. This zoysia requires very low water and fertilizer inputs and can withstand some shade. Within the golf industry, L1F is making headlines for being a tee-to-green grass Zorro zoysia sod was released in 2002 and has become one of the most popular zoysia grasses on the market. It thrives in full sun or partial shade and only requires 3-4 hours of sunlight to thrive. Zorro Zoysia has a rapid recovery regrowth rate from damage and good drought tolerance and can be mowed very low and frequently A Revolutionary Zoysia Grass Innovation is a versatile zoysiagrass. Developed by researchers at Kansas State University and Texas A&M, Innovation is very cold tolerant. It is an excellent choice for users in the transition zone. Fast-growing Innovation has very good shade tolerance and is easy to maintain. Aesthetically, Innovation is an appealing dark green color Palisades Zoysia is known to be a friendly grass due to its impressive establishment rate. Palisades is a medium to coarse textured turf noted for its shade tolerance and low water requirements. It is a high density turf that is especially suitable for home lawns. Palisades has proven itself to be an excellent choice for low- maintenance. Zoysia costs $180 to $270 per pallet or $0.40 to $0.60 per square foot. Touted as a cure-all for lawn care, zoysia is very tolerant to wide variations of sunlight and water. It is native to Japan and the Philippines, so regions with similar climates are especially good for it. In warm areas, zoysia tends to stay green for more than half the year
Get 2021 Zoysia Sod price options and installation cost ranges. Free, online Zoysia Sod cost guide breaks down fair prices in your area. Input project size, product quality and labor type to get Zoysia Sod material pricing and installation cost estimates Zoysia Sod Vs. Other Landscape Alternatives. Sod is a cost-effective, attractive and quick solution to any grassy yard. Sod looks like real grass, with combination of live roots and soil beneath the surface. Over time, as you water any sod, the roots extend into the dirt below and become a natural addition to the yard. Nonetheless, some. Cavalier Zoysia A fine textured, highly dense turf. Cavalier is a fine textured, highly dense turf that is used on residential and commercial sites, sports fields and golf courses. It is similar in appearance to Tifway 419 Bermuda grass, but has improved winter hardiness and survivability under reduced management Zoysia is slow to establish under normal conditions (compared to cool season grasses), so the use of higher seeding rates is HIGHLY recommended. For best results seed at 2 lbs. per 1000 sq. ft . (3 lbs. on coated seed) -- Spread half of the seed in one direction and the other half in the opposite direction for an even coverage
Zoysiagrass. Latin Name: Zoysia sp. Growth Habit: Rhizomatous and Stoloniferous. Inflorescence: Spike with 3-12 spikelets ( Z. pacifica) or 10-50 spikelets ( Z. japonica and Z. matrella) Description: Zoysiagrass is a warm-season turfgrass that spreads laterally by rhizomes and stolons, and is one of the most diverse turfgrasses available for use Turfgrass Producers of Florida P.O. Box 217 LaBelle, FL 33975 Tel/Fax: 863-675-2144 Contact U Zoysia Grass Seed - Zoysia grass is considered one of the most beautiful lawn and turf grass seed varieties available. Zoysia grass is a warm season grass grown throughout the central and southern climates across the world. Zoysia grass seed varieties are part of the Japonica grass family which are known for less plant density, interseeding ability and cold tolerance The Zoysia certainly grows slower than the rest of them. Call 281-431-7441 for a Quote for Palisades Zoysia Grass. So in summary, Palisades has got the ease of care — it's just like taking care of St. Augustine. It's very pretty and very, very plush and feels very nice under your feet. As long as you get that 6 or 7 hours of direct.
Zeon Zoysia is a beautiful, deep green & fine-bladed Zoysia grass. Coined the barefoot grass it was develped as an upgrade to earlier fine blade Zoysia grasses like Cavalier and Emerald. Zeon Zoysia's extensive root system allows it to quickly recover from drought. Zeon can handle full sun and normally exhibits good shade tolerance slow growing grass. (Amazoy Zoysia) Mowing. Mowing once per week during active growing season = 26 times/year. Mowing once per month during 6-month growing season = 6 times/year. Push reel mower. No cost (est. 100 hours) No cost (est. 24 hours) Electric mower at $0.20 per mowing
I am trying to decide if I should go with either Emerald or Zenith Zoysia sod. This all-around good grass is often used for sod installation on home lawns and golf courses. Zoysia Lawns - Slow Green-up in 2014. late in 2014. Emerald Zoysia vs Zeon Zoysia. Emerald, Zeon, Zorro, Pristine, etc.) 2016-05-11 Zoysia planted in bare soil should NOT be mowed for at least one month. After you clearly see new growth developing, cut the grass to about 1 1/2. After complete coverage, the lawn may be maintained at any height over 1/2, however, we suggest a healthy height of 1 1/2 to 3 Your Newly Planted Zoysia Law Bermuda. Most bermudagrasses produced in Florida are utilized on golf courses and other sports turf applications (baseball, football, soccer and polo). However, some varieties are also suited for home lawns. In some areas of the state, common bermudagrass is widely used on roadsides and similar applications
Geo Zoysia is a ﬁne blade grass with a dark green colour. It is, without doubt one of the most beautiful grasses to be found in any landscape. This kind tolerates the shade much better than other types of Zoysia. It is very resistant to transfer, which is why it is a very wise option for golf courses as well as for residential grasses Zoysia is one of the most widely used shade-tolerant grass in Georgia. It can also thrive in warm and sunny weather. Plus, it can withstand drought. Its cultivar, Geo Zoysia has excellent shade tolerance as compared to its other cultivars. So, you can give it a try if you have a Georgian lawn. Shade Tolerant Grass For Texa Read our other article Sod vs. Trees for more info. There are two basic types of Zoysia if we leave out the name brands for a moment. Emerald Zoysia is a small blade, super dense grass with an emerald color. It can be planted next to Bermuda and look very similar (density not withstanding) ATY (warm season grasses) seems to be very useful / dedicated for Bermuda homeowners but hard to find threads on the challenges w/zoysia. Specifically, I'd love to level my zoysia backyard and topdress appropriately but if you stepped on a fine bladed zoysia (zeon/geo like I have), you know the challenge that I imagine you'd have with such a dense grass. It's a slow grower, 'part sun' doesn't. The clean-cut by reel mowers prevents the tips of the grass from turning yellow or brown. When regularly maintained with a sharp reel blade, the Zoysia grass wears a royal carpet-like appearance. When you use a reel mower, it also prevents scalping and clipping clumps. However, at times the zoysia grasses may get neglected and go out of hand
Zoysia grass is known for its ability to stand up to heat, drought, heavy foot traffic and a variety of other challenges. In its optimal growing zones, this tough grass can deliver a beautiful, dense lawn with very little input from you. Whether Zoysia is right for you depends on where you live, your lawn care goals, and how you use your lawn Bermuda vs. Zorro Zoysia. Bermuda lacks drought tolerance and winter hardiness. Empire Zoysia. Raleigh Saint Augustine. Zorro Zoysia. Empire Zoysia. Certified Tifblair Centipede Lawn. Bermuda (Tifway 419): Pros: Best Feature - Recuperates quickly from damage Dark Green, can achieve that fine, manicured appearance
Zeon Zoysia is a great cultivar, James! It has more shade tolerance than many typical types of Zoysia grass and tends to produce a little less thatch as well. As long as your lawn gets 4-5 hours of sun I think it'll do well for your shady yard. Most shaded lawns do get this between the early morning and late afternoon when the sun is able to. A zoysia grass lawn is frequently touted as the cure-all for the homeowner's lawn cares. The basic fact about zoysia grass is that, unless it is grown in the right climate, it will cause more headaches than not. Zoysia Grass Problems. Invasive - Zoysia grass is a very invasive grass. The reason you can plant plugs and not have to seed the. A fine-bladed zoysia grass with a deep green color, Geo is one of the most beautiful turf grasses you will find in a landscape. Geo has good to excellent shade tolerance compared to other zoysias and is extremely wear tolerant, making this a top choice for golf courses as well as residential lawns
Geo™ Zoysia is a fine-bladed zoysia grass with a deep green color. It has good to excellent shade tolerance, compared to other zoysia grasses, and is extremely wear tolerant, making it a top choice for both golf courses and residential lawns. Geo Zoysia will give you the best looking lawn in the neighborhood and are willing to perform a. Zenith® Zoysia Grass Sod. ( 0) $1.25. Add to Cart. We've had great success growing Zenith Zoysia on our farms in Maryland, and consumer demand from the surrounding area has been steadily increasing. Our customers have found that not only does Zenith Zoysia look beautiful with its emerald green color and thick texture, but also requires minimal. Cavalier, Zeon, Zorro, Geo, and Leisure Time are new zoysiagrass cultivars with a moderate growth rate and a fine texture similar to Emerald. Cold tolerance of zoysia is not a problem in North Carolina's piedmont and coastal plain. Only two cultivars of zoysiagrass — Compadre and Zenith — can be seeded. These coarse-textured zoysiagrasses.
Zoysia is an easy care, warm-season grass that is highly versatile and drought tolerant, making it popular for many lawns. However, zoysia grass problems do pop up on occasion — most often from zoysia diseases like brown patch. Common Zoysia Grass Problems. Although relatively free from most pests and diseases, zoysia grass isn't without its faults Zoysia Grass is a warm season Alabama turf grass. Zoysia Grass's leaf texture is fine to a medium coarse and is sometimes sharp to the touch of a finger. Zoysia grasses leaf color ranges from a bright green and can be a dark green. Zoysia grass forms a very dense, low maintenance lawn. Zoysia grass requires full sunshine lawns Zoysia Japonica is the only one of the three that can be established from seeds, but otherwise Zoysia Grass can be established from sprigs, plugs, or sod. Because this type of grass has such a slow growth rate, it is important to properly prepare the seedbed ahead of time The Zeon Zoysia here at New Orleans Country Club has proved to have superior shade and drought tolerance while providing a great surface to play from. Neil Mayberry. The fairway lies offered by Zeon to-date have no comparison. The downside to Zeon fairways comes when you have to be a guest or play in a tournament elsewhere and are relegated to.
Zeon Zoysia. $ 269.50. Out of stock. Pallet contains 16″x24″ pieces. One pallet covers 450 sq.ft. Square footage calculator rounds up to the nearest pallet. Enter length & width below for suggested number of pallets. You will be contacted to arrange delivery JaMur Zoysia is a medium textured grass, similar in look to El Toro grass, but it's a lot easier to manage, needing less water and less fertilizer. Geo Zoysia has a fine texture similar to Emerald, but with a much softer feel and lower thatch development and can be mowed below one half inch Taking Care Of Your Zoysia Sod. The density of the sod, along with an extensive root system, give Zoysia superb recovery characteristics. You should mow every 5-7 days during growing season so the height is between 2-3. Mowing too low could allow weeds to grow in. Don't forget to water, applying 1 of water every 4-7 days during hot or dry times If your Zoysia lawn is suffering from dead spots this summer like the photo above, you aren't alone. Although Gainesville lawns have historically been St. Augustine grass, Zoysia has began making a major push as the turf of choice for a few years. With valid and proven claims of chinch bug-resistance and drought tolerance, even strict homeowner's associations like Hail Zoysiagrass produces a very dense, wear-tolerant lawn that grows well in full sun and light shade. It is very drought resistant and rarely needs irrigation to survive in North Carolina
Geo zoysia can only be planted with sprigs or sod. Zeon zoysia can be planted by sprigs or sod or seed. If you are planning to install either one,. Zoysia grass grows best in USDA planting zones 6-11. The best times to plant zoysia grass are in late spring (once all chances of frost have passed) to early summer. Plant when daily temperatures are consistently in the 70s. Zoysia planting can also be done in early fall, but make sure to plant at least 60 days before the first fall frost Zoysia grass is known for its ability to stand up to heat, drought, heavy foot traffic and a variety of other challenges. Bred for warm-season lawns, Pennington Zenith Zoysia keeps your lawn green longer in cool fall weather and greens up earlier each spring compared to ordinary Zoysia Palisades Zoysia grass features a medium blade(5-7mm) and is dark green in color. Devoloped by Texas A&M University, Palisades Zoysia is shade tolerant like a St. Augustine grass and drought tolerant like a Bermuda grass. Slow growing, low fertilize requirements, and aesthetically one of a kind, Palisades Zoysia is our #1 selling Zoysia grass
The 3 best choices of shade tolerant grass are Zoysia, St. Augustine, and Fescue. The best Fescue blends are still the heaviest maintenance lawns for our area. They require re-seeding 1-2 times per year and they need loose, well drained soil (sandy organic top soil works best.) Fescue cannot tolerate the heat of our summers, especially in our. Zoysia. With its moderate natural resistance to insect and disease and a slow rate of growth (requiring less frequent mowing), Zoysia is becoming a popular option with area homeowners. While not as shade tolerant as St. Augustine Zoysia will take more shade than Bermuda and is comparable to Bermuda as far as withstanding wear and tear On the relative merits of Zoysia matrella vs. Paspalum vaginatum as a golf course turf in Rio de Janeiro. I have suggested (in this video) that the grasses likely to perform well as a golf course turf at Rio de Janeiro would be the same species that perform well in places like Hilo and Hong Kong.That is, manilagrass (Zoysia matrella) is likely to perform well in open unshaded areas and in. Scotts Turf Builder Grass Seed Zoysia Grass Seed and Mulch, 5 lb. - Full Sun and Light Shade - Thrives in Heat & Drought - Grows a Tough, Durable, Low-Maintenance Lawn - Seeds up to 2,000 sq. ft. 3.8 out of 5 stars. 2,053. $42.27 Zoysia. Zorro Zoysia. $ 199.00 - $ 290.00. Zorro is a fine bladed, dark green color, #1 ranked Zoysia grass in the world with multiple used in golf, commercial, and home sites. Zoysia. Emerald Zoysia. $ 199.00 - $ 290.00. Emerald Zoysi is known as the Cadillac of turf and is the most widely used fine textured zoysia in the Southern U.S
The zoysia is happy and thick in all those same places. I have seen the ad for Leisure Time Zoysia as well, but don't have any experience with it. I will tell you that my El Toro and Palisades (also both zoysia japonica grasses like the Leisure Time) only require mowing once a week if allowed to grow to 2 inches or so Scotts® Turf Builder® Grass Seed Zoysia Grass Seed & Mulch thrives in heat, drought and partial shade, as well as survives colder temperatures. It combines mulch and seed to grow a tough, durable, low maintenance lawn. Pro Tips: Late spring and early summer are the best times to plant warm-season grass seed Turf Builder 5 lbs. Zoysia Grass Seed and Mulch thrives in heat and drought conditions. This grass seed grows a tough and durable lawn. It is 99.9% weed free. Grows a tough, durable, low-maintenance lawn. Combination grass seed and mulch. 99.9% weed free grass seed. Medium bladed texture with medium to high drought tolerance Crowne - Zoysia Crowne Zoyiagrass is an aggressive, dark green, course textured lawn grass. It is best suited for use as a warm-season turfgrass for golf course roughs, home lawns, industrial parks and highway right-of-ways throughout the central mid-western states